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Art History

Art history is the study of art through the centuries. From the rennaissance artists to the impressionists, learning art history helps the viewer to see the art through the eye of the creator.  This includes the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture as well as ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. In addition, it includes the study of the artists themselves, from Van Gogh to Monet, Picasso to Renoir.
This page provides links to resources like art history classes, lessons, and workshops, as well as undergraduate and graduate degrees in art history.  If you are interested in gallery management you may find the resources here helpful in your career planning.

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Understand THE WORLDVIEW, THE CULTURE, THE HISTORY OF A PARTICULAR PERIOD, REGION, ARTIST, AND/OR PATRON AN ARDUOUS SURVEY OF OBJECTS, RELIGIOUS VIEWS, ICONOGRAPHY, POLITICAL AGENDAS, AND SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES 2.
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  • 1. The Discipline of Art HistoryA STUDY OF OBJECTS IN THEIR CONTEXTS IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE WORLDVIEW, THE CULTURE, THE HISTORY OF A PARTICULAR PERIOD, REGION, ARTIST, AND/OR PATRON AN ARDUOUS SURVEY OF OBJECTS, RELIGIOUS VIEWS, ICONOGRAPHY, POLITICAL AGENDAS, AND SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES
  • 2. Art history takesevery object as asymptom of whatproduced itInthe hands of theart historian, thework seems topass from opacityto transparency;from silence tospeech. We may only be able to understand the objective --Donald Preziosi of a piece by understanding the culture in which it was made. The magic word is CONTEXT.
  • 3. The definition of Art changes Until the last 100 years, people commissioned works that would show an identified public a desired identity. Art had an agenda. In many periods, artists were more like construction workers than divinely inspired geniuses. So, Art History is often the study of patrons presented identities. It doesnt matter what WE think about past works; we study these works to see how PATRONS wanted to be viewed.
  • 4. The predominant questions are How do we get from one period to another?
  • 5. And why do different periods privilege different images and styles?
  • 6. And what arewe expected to What are know and we recognize expectedfrom the past to know in our own andculture today? recogniz e from the past in our Television, own Movies, Advertising,, culture Videos, today?Cartoons, etc
  • 7. So we study history and culture to understand peoples objects. In order to achieve that goal, Art History studies the relationship a work has to the culture in which it was made by exploring: Contemporary Historical Events Literature Philosophy Scientific Discoveries Music Art History is Interdisciplinary
  • 8. The Language of Art History ART HISTORY REQUIRES A NEW VOCABULARY SURROUNDING: CHRONOLOGY STYLE SUBJECT FORMAL ANALYSIS AND BIAS
  • 9. Chronology When was the work created? What other facets of culturemusic, philosophy, politics, literature, religion, scienceinfluenced the creation of the work? What can the piece tell us about the status of women in a particular year? What did people believe the role of the gods were in a particular generation?
  • 10. Artist and Patron Who created the work? What is her/his story? Biographical Analysis Who commissioned/purchased the work? For what agenda? Political Propaganda? To promote a reputation of wealth or power? To sustain life after death? Criticism of respective culture Self-expression What other facets of culturemusic, philosophy, politics, literature, religion, scienceinfluenced the commissioning of the work?
  • 11. Style Period Stylethose characteristics particular to a specific time and a specific culture Greco-Roman Islamic Regionalthose characteristics particular to a specific provenance Egyptian Mesoamerican Personal Stylethose characteristics particular to an individual artist and his/her techniques MICHELANGELO as different from CARAVAGGIO In 101 we will know fewer artists than in 102 How are these styles determined by the cultures in which they arise?
  • 12. What stylistic clues help us recognize these regions or periods?EGYPT: Upright pose, Diorite ANCIENT GREECE: Marble,material, eternally youthful visage, Contrapposto, Nudity, rationalHorus on Neck proportions
  • 13. Subject Iconographythe writing of images VISUAL CONTENT SYMBOLS ATTRIBUTES PERSONIFICATIONS Helps us read the image presented HINT: Dont Ignore the Obvious.
  • 14. What iconographyhelps us recognizethis subject?SUBJECT: MaestaICNOGRAPHY:Man-Child on her Lap(Jesus)ThroneSurrounded by AngelsRed and Blue RobesMantleHaloInscription below (butmost people would havebeen illiterate)
  • 15. Formal Analysis These elements will often help us understand why we react to a particular piece the way we do Composition Medium/Technique Line, Color, Texture Mass, Volume Perspective Linear, Atmospheric Perspective and Foreshortening Proportion/Disproportion Hierarchy of Scale
  • 16. Bias How we interpret meaning is directly influenced by how we identify ourselves and what we (unconsciously) assume about others Gender identity Age Ethnicity Socio-Economic Class Education Religious Creed Sexual Orientation Being aware of our biases (we all have many), we can be more informed about what we see REMEMBER, bias is neither good nor bad; it just is.
  • 17. Which is the correct portrait?Te Pehi Kupe, Self Portrait , John Sylvester, Portrait of Te 1826 Pehi Kupe, 1826 It depends on what we privilege--self-identification or naturalism.
  • 18. IN SUMMARY Art History is an We are going to use the uncovering of historical tools of: changes as seen in works Chronology of art Artist and Patron Art History is Style interdisciplinary Iconography Formal Analysis And we are going to be as conscious as we can of our biases
  • 19. The Discipline of Art HistoryA STUDY OF OBJECTS IN THEIR CONTEXTS IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND THE WORLDVIEW, THE CULTURE, THE HISTORY OF A PARTICULAR PERIOD, REGION, ARTIST, AND/OR PATRON AN ARDUOUS SURVEY OF OBJECTS, RELIGIOUS VIEWS, ICONOGRAPHY, POLITICAL AGENDAS, AND SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES

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Understand the meaning and importance of the art To identify and appreciate the different forms and aspects of art through a study of various elements, mediums, and techniques used in the creation of art To enhance enjoyment of the arts particularly local artists and those from the students own cultural heritage 3.
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  • 1. Course Description This course covers the study of Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Cinema, and Literature. It will expose students to Classical and contemporary artists, their works, and the environment in which they lived, which inspired them to create. The lectures will be supplemented by visits to galleries, museums, studios, and the cinema and other areas relevant to the subject.
  • 2. General Objectives To understand the meaning and importance of the art To identify and appreciate the different forms and aspects of art through a study of various elements, mediums, and techniques used in the creation of art To enhance enjoyment of the arts particularly local artists and those from the students own cultural heritage
  • 3. HUMANITIES: What is it? The term Humanities comes from the Latin word, humanitas It generally refers to art, literature, music, architecture, dance and the theatrein which human subjectivity is emphasized and individual expressiveness is dramatized.
  • 4. How important is Humanities? The fields of knowledge and study falling under humanities are dedicated to the pursuit of discovering and understanding the nature of man. The humanities deal with man as a being of purpose, of values, loves, hates, ideas and sometimes as a seer, or prophet with divine inspiration. The humanities aim at educating.
  • 5. Major Areas of Humanities Literature Visual Arts Performing Arts Cinema
  • 6. Can you identify the following? Vincent van Gogh, Starry Night, 1889. Oil on canvas. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • 7. Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselle de Avignon, 1907. Oil painting. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
  • 8. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa. C.1503-1506. Oil painting. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • 9. An Example of Performing Arts
  • 10. The great Russian novelist Leo N. Tolstoy (1828-1910), author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina, developed his own original philosophy of art. He argues that art is important even amidst extensive poverty and deprivation.
  • 11. Salient Points in Tolstoys Definition of Art In order correctly to define art, it is necessary, first of all, to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure and to consider it as one of the conditions of human life. Every work of art causes the receiver to enter into a certain kind of relationship both with him who produced, or is producing the art, and with all those who, simultaneously, previously, or subsequently, receive the same artistic impression.
  • 12. Speech, transmitting the thoughts and experiences of men, serves as a means of union among them, and art acts in a similar manner. The activity of art is based on the fact that a man, receiving through his sense of hearing or sight another man's expression of feeling, is capable of experiencing the emotion which moved the man who expressed it.
  • 13. Art begins when one person, with the object of joining another or others to himself in one and the same a feeling, expresses that feeling by certain external indications. To evoke in oneself a feeling one has once experienced, and having evoked it in oneself, then, by means of movements, lines, colors, sounds, or forms expressed in words, so to transmit that feeling that others may experience the same feeling - this is the activity of art.
  • 14. Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that other people are infected by these feelings and also experience them. All human life is filled with works of art of every kind - from cradlesong, jest, mimicry, the ornamentation of houses, dress, and utensils, up to church services, buildings, monuments, and triumphal processions. It is all artistic activity.
  • 15. Why Do We Make ART? Art is a vital and persistent aspect of human experience. To impose order on disorder and to create form from formlessness. The wish to leave behind after death something of value by which to be remembered. The wish to preserve ones likeness after death.
  • 16. THE VALUE OF ART Works of art are valued not only by artists and patrons, but also by entire cultures. In fact, the periods of history that we tend to identify as the high points of human achievement are those in which art was most highly valued and encouraged.
  • 17. Material Value Works of art may be valued because they are made of a precious material. During the Middle Ages in Europe, ancient Greek bronze statues were not valued for their aesthetic character, nor for what they might have revealed about Greek culture. Instead their value lay in the fact that they could be melted down and reformed into weapons.
  • 18. Benvenuto Cellini, 1540-44 Gold, enamel and ebony, 26 x 33,5 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
  • 19. Ed Defensor, Lin-ay kang Iloilo.Bronze. 15 feet. Iloilo Capitol
  • 20. Intrinsic Vale A work of art may contain valuable material, but that is not the primary basis on which its quality is judged. Intrinsic value is not always apparent, and in fact varies in different times and places. Is it art? is a familiar question, which expresses the dificulty of defining art and of recognizing the aesthetic value of an object.
  • 21. Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1928. Bronze, unique cast, 54x8 1/2x6 . Museum of Modern Art
  • 22. Religious Value One important way of communicating Bible stories and legends of the saints to a largely illiterate population was through the sculptures, paintings, mosaics, wall hangings, and stained-glass windows in churches. Beyond its didactic function, the religious significance of a work of art may be so great that entire groups of people identify with the object.
  • 23. Nationalistic Value Works of art have nationalistic value inasmuch as they express the pride and accomplishment of a particular culture.
  • 24. Psychological Value Our reactions to art span virtually the entire range of human emotion. They include pleasure, fright, amusement, avoidance, and outrage. One of the psychological aspects of art is its ability to attract and repel us, and this is not necessarily a function of whether or not we find a particular image aesthetically pleasing.
  • 25. Art is FORM Form means (1) elements of art (2) the principles of design (3) medium of the artist. Form, in this context, is concrete and fairly easily described - no matter which piece of art is under scrutiny.
  • 26. Art is CONTENT Content is idea-based and means (1) what the artist meant to portray, (2) what the artist actually did portray and (3) how we react, as individuals, to both the intended and actual messages. It includes ways in which a work was influenced - by religion, or politics, or society in general, or even the artist's use of hallucinogenic substances - at the time it was created.
  • 27. SUBJECT Subject is the term used for whatever is represented in a work of art. The subject of the work of art answers the question:What is it about? Not all arts have subjects. Those arts are called nonobjective.
  • 28. Painting, sculpture, the graphic arts, literature, and the theater arts are generally classified as representational Music, architecture, and many of the functional arts are non-representational. The non-objective arts do not present descriptions, stories or references to identifiable objects or symbols.
  • 29. Sources of Art Subject NATURE Next to animals and people and their activities, nature as landscape has been the common subject of the art. Has been the most common inspiration and subject matter for art.
  • 30. Fernando Amorsolo, Sunset, 1950. Oil on canvas
  • 31. Sources of Art Subject HISTORY All art is conditioned by the historical period in which it is created. Rulers like to have themselves and the great deeds of their time perpetuated consequently, statues and paintings of the great are found in each civilization.
  • 32. Carlos V. Francisco, 1898 Philippine Revolution
  • 33. 'The Executions of the Third of May, 1808
  • 34. Sources of Art Subject GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY Greek and Roman mythology has been a very important source for subjects in the arts. Those arts are so well-known that they count as a definite part of our inheritance. During the Renaissance period, poets, painters, and sculptors drew largely from Greek and Roman sources for subjects.
  • 35. Sources of Art Subject RELIGION Religion has played an enormous role in inspiring works of visual arts, music, architecture, and literature through ages. It was during the Renaissance that the European artisans became artists and conscious of their role in a way that had never been true before.
  • 36. Sistine Chapel
  • 37. The Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci
  • 38. Head of Buddha (Gandhara, India, ca.5th century)
  • 39. REALISM When objects are depicted in the way they would normally appear in nature, the presentation is said to be realistic. It attempts to present the world as it appears to the everyday senses, and sought to depict ordinary lives of ordinary people without exaggeration or idealization.
  • 40. ABSTRACTION When an artist becomes so interested and engrossed in one phase of a scene that he does not show the subject at all as an object reality, but only his idea of it, or his feeling about it, this referred to as abstraction. This is a technique of simplifying and reorganizing objects and elements according to the artists creative expression.
  • 41. SYMBOLISM In the arts, the use of symbols to concentrate or intensify meaning, making the work more subjective than objective. Symbolist painters rejected realism and impressionism. They felt that art should not simply depict, but should suggest ideas, moods, and psychological states through colour, line, and form.
  • 42. The artists task is not to see things but to see through them to a significance and reality far deeper that what is given in superficial appearance. The subject matter of the Symbolists becomes increasingly esoteric and exotic, weird, mysterious, visionary, dream-like, fantastic.
  • 43. Edvard Much gives us quite disturbing vision of neurotic panic breaking forth in a dreadful but silent scream the scream heard within the mind under prolonged anxiety. He also presents almost unbearable pictures of the tensions and psychic anguish that beset modern men and the ultimate loneliness that is the inescapable lot of us all. EDVARD MUCH, The Scream, 1893
  • 44. Bright colors, mosaic-like or enamel-like, stud the surfaces that enwrap the voluptously somnolent figures in the Life group, in which intertwined images of infancy, youth, maturity, and old age celebrate life as boaund up with love. The tableau of defenseless sleep is set off against the specter of Death, the nocturnal assassin, who advances threateningly upon it. The shroud of the fleshless Death is appropriately dark as night, only dimly decked with funereal black crosses and chiromantric symbols. While Life, sated with love, sleeps, its enemy, Death, wakes. GUSTAV KLIMT, Death And Life, 1908 and 1911
  • 45. FAUVISM Fauvism (fauves. wild beasts) is characterised by paintings that used intensely vivid, non-naturalistic and exuberant colours. The Fauves brought color to a new intensity with startling discords of vermilion and emerald green, cerulean blue and vivid orange held together by sweeping brush strokes and bold patterns.
  • 46. Derain entirely rejects the subtle harmonies of Impressionism, so expressive of atmospheric and climatic conditions, if favor of a distorted perspective emphasized by clashing yellows, blues, greens, and reds against the black accents of the arches. In this way, the Fauves freed color from its traditional role as the description of the local tone of an object and helped to prepare both artists and public for the use of color as an expressive end in itself. In a sense, the color became the subject of the picture.
  • 47. The composition is an essay in the contrast of warm and cool colors and curving and straight lines. Although the planes of the picture seem to resolve into a single, flat spread, directional lines and the variation in the strength of color suggest a front and back, but in the kind of contrived spatial ambiguity. According to Matisse: What I am after, above all, is expression...I am unable to distingusih between the feeling I have for life and the way of expressing it...The whole arrangement of my picture is expressive. ..everything plays a part. Composition is the art of arranging in a decorative manner the various elements at the painters disposal for the expression of his feelings...
  • 48. DADAISM In 1916 and 1917 a number of artists independently stated their disgust with the war and life in general by making works of nonart. This movement was early christened Dada, a nonsense or babytalk term indicative of the conviction that European culture had lost any real meaning at all. Dada ignored aesthetics. If art was to appeal to sensibilities, Dada was intended to offend.
  • 49. Hannah Hoch. Cut with the Dada Kitchen Knife through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch in Germany, 1919, collage of pasted papers, 90x144 cm, Staatliche Museum, Berlin
  • 50. MARCEL DUCHAMP. Fountain. RAOUL HAUSMANN. ABCD
  • 51. FUTURISM It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city.
  • 52. Gicacomo Balla. Abstract Speed + Sound, 1913-1914
  • 53. An example of Futurist architecture by Antonio SantElia 'Unique Forms of Continuity in Space', bronze sculpture by Umberto Boccioni.1913, Museum of Modern Art (New York City)
  • 54. SURREALISM Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. It is based on the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of previously neglected associations, in the omnipotence of dream, in the disinterested play of thought.
  • 55. Dali creates his most haunting allegory of the empty space in which time is at an end. The barren landscape, without horizon, drifts to infinity, lit by some eerie, never setting sun. An amorphous creature sleeps in the foreground, draped with a limp watch. Another such watch hangs from the branch of a dead tree; yet another hangs half over the edge of a rectangular form. The watches are visible by ants and a fly, as if they were decaying, orgnic life, soft and viscous. The watch- a metallic, intricate, and precise instrument is metamorphosed into an object devourable by busy ants. We recognize the impossible landscape and its impossibe contents as perfectly possible in the dream world. SALVADOR DALI, The Peristence of Memory, 1931
  • 56. The terrors of wars and pogroms is suggested by the pitiful little figures and the village in the background, while resignation and hope are expressed in the flyng angel, the Torah scroll, and the rabbi-Christ figure on the cross. The work is a moving portrayal of the artists feeling that faith is important in a world of war and brutality. Although the very free, floating in composition- with unexpected juxtapositions of the actual and teh unearthly is Surrealist in the sense that it perpetuates the fantastic content of a dream, the individual symbols refer to much more than Chagalls personal psychic life. MARC CHAGALL, Crucifixion, 1943
  • 57. EXPRESSIONISM It is an artistic style in which the artist attempts to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse in him. He accomplishes his aim through distortion, exaggeration, primitivism, and fantasy and through the vivid, jarring, violent, or dynamic application of formal elements.
  • 58. IMPRESSSIONISM The Impressionists sought to create the illusion of forms bathed in light and atmosphere. This required an intensive study of outdoor light as the source of our experience of color, which revealed that local color the actual color of the object is usually modified by the quality of the light in which it is seen, by reflections from the other objects, and by the effects produced by juxtaposed colors.
  • 59. The Impressionists achieved remarkably brilliant effects with their characteristically short, choppy brush strokes, which so accurately caught the vibrating quality of light.
  • 60. Diego Velazquez, Venus and Cupid David Raderstorf, Nude Abstraction Gustav klimt, Symbolism Nude
  • 61. Henry Matisse, Reclining Nude Mark Webster, Felicia 1424 Budanov Valery, Dream

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  • 1. Art of South & Southeast Asia before 1200 A Presentation by Laura D'Angelo, Harrison Paup, & Leland Torrence
  • 2. The Indian Subcontinent
    • India, southeastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
    • Natural divisions in land in India create differences in climate, language, and terrain (Vindhya Hills separate North India from South India)
    • Regional and cultural characteristics and artistic traditions
    • Common traits in Indian art:
    • Sense of beauty (voluptuous forms, ornament, texture, color); reflect belief in generosity, favor of gods
    • Symbolism (intellectual, emotional)
    • Capturing quality of world influenced by divine
    • Gods & humans given tangible and gratifying forms that are radiant with inner spirit
  • 3. Buddhist Philosophy and Art
    • Buddhism: spiritual force; teaches followers how to cope in a world full of misery
    • Central figure, Buddha (563-483 BCE), rejected worldly concerns of life at a royal court
    • Life is full of suffering; endless cycle of birth and rebirth
    • Aim of Buddhists is to end cycle and achieve oneness with the supreme spirit (involves putting an end to the soul) through their devotion to good work
  • 4. Common Buddhist Symbols
    • Lion : symbol of Buddha's royalty
    • Wheel : Buddha's law
    • Lotus : Buddha's pure nature; lotus grows in swamps, but mud slides off its surface
    • Columns surrounded by a wheel: Buddha's teaching
    • Empty Throne: Buddha, or a reminder of Buddha's presence
  • 5. Buddhist Painting and Sculpture
    • Buddhas typically have a compact pose with little negative space
    • Often seated (sometimes standing, lying down)
    • When seated: usually posed in lotus position with balls of feet turned straight up; wheel marking on soles of feet is prominently displayed
    • Treatment of drapery varies based on region
    • Frontal, symmetrical, nimbus (halo) around their heads
    • Bodhisattvas (helpers) are usually near the Buddha
    • Mood is usually detached; suggests meditation
    • Mudras : hand gestures that reveal actions and feelings
    • Usually base or predella below Buddha; can include donor figures, may have illustration of one of his teachings or story from life
    • Yakshas (males) and yakshis (females): nature spirits
    • females: stand in elaborate dancelike poses
    • males: powerful shoulders and arms
  • 6. Indus Valley Civilization 2600-1900 BCE
    • Also known as the Harappan civilization
    • Approximately the same time as Egyptian Old Kingdom
    • Little is known about the civilization; what we do know is derived from some artworks
  • 7. TORSO OF A "PRIEST-KING"
    • Indus Valley Civilization
    • c. 2000-1900 BCE
    • Steatite; 17.5 cm
    • May represent leader/ancestor figure
    • Low forehead, broad nose, thick lips, long slit eyes indicate its origins
    • Trefoil motif
    • Commanding human presence
    • Originally painted
    • Arm + head bands may indicate rank
  • 8. LARGE WATER TANK
    • Indus Valley civilization
    • Mohenjo-Daro (best preserved site)
    • c. 2600-1900 BCE
    • Fired brick
    • Public or ritual bathing area
    • Located in elevated citadel area
  • 9. The Vedic Period
    • 2000 BCE: Aryans replace indigenous population in India
    • Sacred writings: Vedas ("Vedic" Period)
    • Formation of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism (3 out of 4 major religions)
    • 800 BCE: Upanishads composed
    • metaphysical texts that analyze the meanings of Vedic hymns
    • relationship between individual soul ( atman ) and universal soul (Brahman)
    • humans are caught in samsara (relentless cycle of birth, life, death, rebirth)
    • India's literature: written in Sanskrit (musical & complex)
    • 400 BCE: 18-volume Mahabharata (longest epic in world literature); Ramayana (most popular religious epic in India, Southeast Asia)
    • relate histories of gods and humans with ideas of Vedas
    • Shakyamuni Buddha (500 BCE): influential teacher; "enlightened one"; formed basis of Buddhism
    • Mahavira founded Jain religion
    • Buddhism and Jainism were available to all people
    • Buddhism influenced many pieces of art during 3rd-5th centuries BCE
  • 10. The Maurya Period (4th to 2nd century BCE)
    • India's first empire (ruled by Mauryan dynasty)
    • Transition in Indian art from use of wood to stone
    • Refinement in pottery
    • Ashoka (273232 BC): third Mauryan emperor
    • Conversion and support of Buddhism
    • 254 BC: Ashoka had huge edicts on Buddhism carved into rocks and caves
    • 267 BC: 7 edicts carved into sandstone pillars
    • Built 84,000 stupas to enshrine the relics of the Buddha and commemorate main events Siddhartha Guatama's life (founder of Buddhism)
  • 11. YAKSHI HOLDING A FLY-WHISK
    • Maurya Period
    • Didarganj, India
    • c. 250 BCE
    • Polished sandstone
    • 5' 4.25"
    • Represents yakshi (a spirit associated with productive forces of nature)
    • Large breasts and pelvis symbolize association of female beauty with procreative abundance, bounty
    • these qualities reflect generosity of gods, dharma
    • Dharma : divinely ordained moral law that kept the universe from falling into chaos
    • Authority shown through frontal rigidity of pose, massive size, and strong, linear patterning of ornaments and clothing
    • Soft, youthful face and definition of stomach muscles alleviate stiffness
    • Shiny polish on flesh softens figure (characteristic of Mauryan sculpture)
  • 12. LION CAPITAL
    • Maurya Period
    • Sarnath
    • c. 250 BCE
    • Polished sandstone; 7'
    • On column erected along pilgrimage route to see holy sites connected w/ life of Buddha
    • Lowest portion represents down-turned petals of lotus blossom
    • Lotus flowers emerging clean from dirty water symbolizes presence of divine purity in imperfect world
    • Abacus (slab forming top of a capital) decorated with 4 wheels (Buddha's law)
    • Animals symbolize 4 great rivers of world
    • 4 lions = 4 cardinal directions; symbolize universal nature of Buddhism
    • Lion's roar = Buddha's speech
    • Formal, heraldic pose; stylized faces
    • Patterning of realistic elements
  • 13. The Period of the Shungas & Early Andhras
    • India returns to local rule by regional dynasties
    • Shunga (185-72 BCE): central India
    • Early Andhra (73 BCE-50 CE): South India
  • 14. Stupas: What are they?
    • Religious monuments enclosing a relic chambers
    • Fundamental to Buddhism
    • Plan is a carefully calculated mandala (diagram of the cosmos as envisioned by Buddhism)
    • Open to all for private worship
    • First stupas built to house Buddha's remains after his cremation
    • Eight portions of the relics were divided into 8 reliquaries
    • Each reliquary placed in its own burial mound = stupa
    • His body - his enlightenment - attainment of nirvana
    • The method of veneration is to walk around the stupa in a clockwise direction
  • 15. GREAT STUPA, SANCHI
    • Madhya Pradesh, India
    • c. 150-50 BCE
    • Built by King Ashoka; enlarged; elaborate gateways added
    • Buddhist shrine
    • Dome built from rubble/dirt, faced with dressed stone, covered with shining white plaster; replication of dome of heaven
    • Mast at very top bears 3 stone disks/"umbrellas"
    • Umbrellas: Buddha, Buddha's Law, Monastic Orders
    • Mast itself is an axis mundi (connects Cosmic Waters below earth with celestial realm above it to anchor everything in proper place)
  • 16. YAKSHI BRACKET FIGURE
    • Forming a bracket between each capital and the lowest crossbar (of torana/gateway) is a sculpture of a yakshi
    • Leans daringly into space with casual abandon
    • Appears almost nude (emphasizing her form)
    • Band across her abdomen accentuates her supple flesh
    • Swelling/arching curves of body evoke the deity's procreative/bountiful essence
    • Personification of the waters - she is the source of life
    • Designs, symbols, scenes, & figures carved all over the gateways of the Great Stupa relate the history/lore of Buddhism
  • 17. The Emergence of Buddhist Rock-Cut Halls
    • 2nd century BCE: Buddhist monks begin to carve caves for own use from stone plateaus in south-central India
    • Exteriors & interiors carved with great attention to detail
    • Sacred space
    • Two types of rock-cut halls:
    • vihara : used for monks' living quarters
    • chaitya : "sanctuary"; usually enshrined a stupa
  • 18. SECTION OF THE CHAITYA HALL AT KARLA
    • 1st century BCE-1st century CE
    • 123 ft long, 46 ft high
    • Largest, most developed chaitya hall
    • Arched windows (imitating facade of multistoried palace)
    • Chaitya window/sun window provides light
    • Panels of mithuna couples flank entrances (male and female figures that evoke harmony, fertility)
    • Barrel vault ceiling
    • Wide central aisle, two narrow side aisles lead to stupa in apse
    • Stupa placed at end with ambulatory that allows for ritual circumambulation
    • Basilican form with long nave defined by colonnade
    • Bell-shaped capitals on columns
  • 19. The Kushan Period & Later Andhra Periods
    • ca. 2nd century B.C.-3rd century A.D.
    • Trade was strong along China's Silk Road
    • People under this rule had learned to use a form of the Greek alphabet
    • First Indian ruler to strike gold coins in imitation of the Roman aureus
    • Under Kanishka's (third Kushan emperor) rule, Kushan controlled a large territory ranging from the Aral Sea through present-day Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan into northern India
    • As far east as Benares and as far south as Sanchi
  • 20. STANDING BUDDHA
  • 21. Gandhara School and the Standing Buddha
    • 3rd century CE; schist (fine-grained dark stone)
    • Combines Hellenistic, Persian & native styles
    • Budda seen as superhuman figure; stronger, more heroic than normal human
    • Body: broad, massive; heavy shoulders, well-defined torso
    • Left knee bent (somewhat relaxed)
    • Robe: tight, riblike folds alternate with delicate creases
    • pattern of heavy and shallow lines
    • tension of folds suggests life and power
    • resembles togas on Roman statues
  • 22. Mathura School
    • Evolved from representation of yakshas (indigenous male nature deities)
    • Buddha sits in yogic posture in stele
    • Right hand raised: "have no fear"
    • Powerful impression of Buddha (like Gandhara)
    • Outward gaze, alert posture suggest more intense, concentrated energy
    • Robe pulled tightly
    • Pleats of robe shown abstractly
    • Abstraction also in face (geometric shapes)
    • Torso very naturalistic
    Buddha and Attendants c. late 1st-early 2nd c. CE
  • 23. Amaravati School
    • Figures slighter than those of Gandhara, Mathura
    • FIgures are curvy and mobile (even when resting)
    • Varied postures create interest in activities of each individual and light, joyous effect
    Siddhartha in the Palace c. 3rd century CE
  • 24. The Gupta Period and the Standing Buddha
    • Gupta power: 320-486 CE
    • Buddhism reached its greatest influence in India
    • Two schools: Mathura & Sarnath
    • Standing Buddha embodies Sarnath style
    • Mildly relaxed pose
    • Plain robe (unlike Kushan images); distinctive of Sarnath style
    • Focuses attention on perfection of body
    • Body: graceful, slight
    • Downcast eyes: otherworldly introspection; gentle, open posture relates to humans
    • NOT represented as superhuman
    • Fully enlightened AND fully human
    474 CE Sandstone; 6'4"
  • 25. BODHISATTVA
    • Detail of a cave wall painting, Gupta period, c. 475 CE
    • Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who postpone nirvana and buddhahood to help others achieve enlightenment
    • Distinguished from buddhas in art by their princely garments
    • Graceful bending posture and serene gaze impart a sympathetic attitude
    • The naturalistic style balances outline and softly graded color tones
    • Sophisticated, realistic detail is balanced by the languorous human form
  • 26. The Post-Gupta Period
    • Hinduism begins to dominate Indian religious life
    • Hinduism: infinite variety of the divine (expressed in gods, nature, other human beings)
    • Orthodox Hindus accept Vedic texts as divine in origin; maintain aspects of Vedic social hierarchy
    • Every Hindu is to lead a good life through prayer, good deeds (break cycle of reincarnation)
    • Shiva: one of the main Hindu deities
    • periodically dances the world to destruction & rebirth
    • Other deities:
    • Brahma: creater god
    • Vishnu: preserver gods
  • 27. Characteristics of Hindu Architecture
    • Temple is a residence of a god
    • Solidly built with small interior rooms
    • Center: tiny interior cella called "Womb of the World", contains sacred statue of main deity
    • Thick walls protect deity from outside forces
    • Two types of temples: northern & southern
    • Northern:
    • shikhara : rises as a solid mass above the flat stone ceiling and windowless walls of the sanctum (garbhagriha)
    • All temples built on mystical plan ( mandala ): schematic design of a sacred realm or space
  • 28. VISHNU TEMPLE AT DEOGARH
    • 530 CE
    • Northern-style
    • Massive, solid structure, like mountain
    • Entrance is elaborate, meaningful
    • "Windows" on exterior function symbolically to let light of deity out of the temple to be seen by people outside
    • Panels on outside symbolize Vishnu's transition from Brahman into our physical world
  • 29.
    • Entrance takes worshiper from mundane world into sacred
    • Two river goddesses (upper cornel of lintel) symbolize purifying waters over entrance
    • Male, female guardians flank doorway
    • Center, above door: image of Vishnu (to whom temple is dedicated)
    DOORWAY OF THE VISHNU TEMPLE
  • 30. PANEL OF VISHNU on VISHNU TEMPLE
    • Vishnu dreams the universe into existence
    • First being created: Brahma (central, 4-headed figure)
    • Vishnu: large, four arms (omnipotent)
    • Smooth, perfected shape of body (Gupta style)
    • 4 figures on right frieze below personify VIshnu's powers; ready to fight evil (2 demons
    • Panel portrays birth of universe and appearance of evil
    • Depicted as drama acted out by gods in superhuman form
  • 31. SHIVA NATARAJA
    • 12th century CE
    • Bronze, 32"
    • Chola dynasty
    • Vigorously dancing with one foot on a dwarf, who symbolizes "becoming"; Shiva controls it
    • Four hands
    • Shiva's left hand holds ball of fire
    • Fire symbolizes destruction of physical universe
    • Right hand holds a drum (beat represents rhythms of creation & destruction)
    • Central axis maintains figure's equilibrium
    • Limbs are asymmetrical
    • Appears lordly & aloof but aware of good-naturedness
    • Synthesis of godly & human
  • 32. The 10th-14th Centuries
    • Small kingdoms & dynasties flourish; give rise to regional styles
    • Buddhism declined; Hindu gods grow even more popular
    • Local kings rival each other; build temples dedicated to favorite deity
    • Complicated/subtle variations of Hindu temple emerge
  • 33. Kandariya Mahadeva Temple
    • c. mid-7th century CE
    • Dedicated to Shiva
    • Northern style (shikhara rises over its garbhagriha)
    • Larger, more decorated, addition of halls & porches
    • Comparable to temple at Deogarh
    • 3 halls serve as spaces for ritual
    • Post-and-lintel construction
    • Decorative scheme of smaller shikhara motifs obscures shape of main shikhara (slender)
    • Clear structure, unified composition
    • Moldings, sculpture on lower portion create horizontal emphasis
  • 34. Bhakti Movement
    • Bhakti: religious movement meaning "devotional"
    • Revolves around ideal relationship between humans & deities
    • Gods create maya (illusion) in which all people are trapped
    • Stresses intimate, personal, loving relation with god; complete devotion to god
    • Contrast of types (old, young; teacher, devotee; saint, king)
    • Small flower offering: devotion to Shiva
    • Line is essence of painting
    • Less shading, fewer details
    Rajaraja I and His Teacher 1010 CE
  • 35. Art of Southeast Asia
    • Trade & cultural exchange brought Buddhism, Hinduism to Southeast Asia
    • Thailand-Prakhon Chai Style
    • Naturalism, lithe, youthful proportions
    • Abbreviated clothing, loose arrangement of long hair
    • Multiple forearms (Hindu sculpture, esoteric Buddhist art)
    Buddha Maitreya 8th century
  • 36. ANGKOR VAT
    • Cambodia
    • 12th century
    • Crowning achievement of Khmer architecture (state temple built for Khmer kings)
    • Dedicated to worship of Vishnu
    • Array of structures is temple and symbolic cosmic mountain
    • Stepped pyramid with 5 towers set in 4 enclosures of increasing perimeter

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